Technical Debt In Agile and Scrum

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Rafael Timbó
Rafael Timbó
Chief Technology Officer

Table of Contents

Learn about technical debt in Agile and Scrum, how it impacts development, and ways to reduce it.
Published on
November 1, 2023
Updated on
April 11, 2024

Technical debt can cost your company delayed product launches, countless lost hours of engineering time, and developer productivity. And tech debt in Agile environments can be especially troublesome.

Technical debt is the cost of reworking code in the future because of decisions made in the present. Agile and Scrum’s focus on iterative development and rapid delivery can lead to choices that accumulate a backlog of problems over subsequent sprints. 

Much like financial debt, technical debt carries an interest that compounds over time. In the case of technical debt, that looks like decreased productivity, poor code quality, and slower rollout of new features. In this article, we’ll explore how to balance immediate results and long-term software excellence by addressing technical debt in Agile and Scrum environments.

What Is Tech Debt In Scrum?

Technical debt in Scrum refers to the accumulation of shortcuts, compromises, or suboptimal design decisions made during the software development process. It's like borrowing from the future to pay for the present. 

When development teams face tight deadlines or prioritize quick solutions, they might skip certain best practices, leading to subpar code quality or architectural choices. While this approach can provide short-term gains, it often results in maintenance challenges, reduced agility, and increased complexity down the line. 

Scrum, a popular Agile framework, encourages regular retrospective evaluations, which provide opportunities to identify and address technical debt. This, in turn, aligns with the principle of continuous improvement, where the development process is refined to ensure sustainable and high-quality outcomes.

As development progresses, the choices to manage technical debt can determine the efficiency of future iterations, the ability to incorporate new features seamlessly, and the stability of the software over its life cycle. Additionally, recognizing the trade-offs in managing existing technical debt can help you make informed decisions regarding resource allocation, Scrum project timelines, and overall risk management.

Tech debt can accrue in various forms, such as redundant code, outdated libraries, or incomplete documentation. It’s crucial for Scrum teams to address and manage tech debt regularly to ensure sustainable software development and product management success.

How Tech Debt Impacts Development

Tech debt can have far-reaching impacts on the development process and overall software development workflow. In Scrum, where regular iterations drive continuous improvement, tech debt can hinder the team's ability to build on a solid foundation, potentially slowing down the pace of feature delivery.

If tech debt remains unidentified or overlooked in Scrum, the consequences can reverberate throughout the development life cycle. Poor code quality resulting from unaddressed tech debt can complicate future sprint planning and increase the risk of introducing new defects. In Scrum, where adaptability and responsiveness are paramount, this could lead to longer debugging phases, disrupting the rhythm of iterations. 

The negative impacts of tech debt extend beyond technical issues. For example, the development team's morale can take a hit when they grapple with suboptimal code, hindering their enthusiasm and creativity. Subsequently, the user story becomes increasingly negative.

Specifically within the Scrum context, unmanaged tech debt can detract from the core values of transparency and inspection in project management. The Scrum framework encourages regular retrospectives where the team reflects on processes and practices. Unaddressed tech debt obscures these insights, making it harder to accurately evaluate the effectiveness of each sprint and adjust strategies accordingly. 

Additionally, unmanaged tech debt can delay the rollout of new features, leading to potential stakeholder dissatisfaction or missed market opportunities. Proactively managing tech debt within Scrum is essential to sustaining the iterative progress, code quality, and collaboration that Scrum strives to achieve.

How Scrum Masters Can Reduce Technical Debt 

Failing to address tech debt can lead to a range of challenges that hinder productivity, innovation, and quality. But addressing and reducing Agile technical debt can significantly improve development by sustaining development velocity, improving code quality, and enhancing adaptability to changing requirements.

To effectively manage Scrum technical debt, consider these approaches:

  • Regular code reviews: Conduct prudent code reviews to identify and address areas of code debt.
  • Enhanced code reviews: Use language learning models (LLMs) to help conduct thorough code reviews, even in globally distributed teams. Machine learning algorithms and transformer models can identify potential issues or inconsistencies in code, ensuring that you detect unintentional debt early and address it before it accumulates.
  • Automated documentation: Employ language learning models to facilitate the creation of comprehensive and standardized documentation. This includes automatically generating code comments, annotations, and explanations, ensuring that the codebase remains well-documented, and reducing the chances of technical debt arising from unclear or undocumented code.
  • Prioritize refactoring: Dedicate a portion of each sprint to refactoring, a practice involving restructuring current code to enhance its quality. This ensures the development process remains iterative and adaptable while consistently striving for improved code integrity and decreased product backlog.
  • Automated testing: Implement automated testing to catch regressions early and ensure modifications don't introduce new problems.
  • Predictive analysis: Use machine learning models to predict areas of potential technical debt by analyzing patterns in the development process. Deep learning algorithms can forecast where future technical debt might accumulate by studying historical data on code changes, bug fixes, and performance improvements. This proactive insight enables Agile teams to allocate resources for timely refactoring, preventing the compounding of debt over multiple sprints.
  • Incremental improvements: Focus on gradual improvements instead of massive overhauls to prevent disrupting the development cycle.
  • Collaborative culture: Encourage open communication with team members and product owners about identified tech debt and strategies to manage it.

Incorporating these practices into the development process helps the team proactively address technical debt, ensuring a more adaptive and sustainable software development journey. And incorporating language learning models and machine learning makes the process faster and more efficient.

Hire Skilled Developers to Reduce Technical Debt

Revelo matches companies with rigorously vetted and time zone-aligned Latin American developers, ensuring they have technical expertise, effective communication, English proficiency, soft skills, and the ability to fit seamlessly into your team. 

We handle onboarding, including payroll, benefits administration, taxes, and local compliance, so you can focus on managing your team, writing code, and developing products. Plus, we offer support throughout a developer’s time with your company to ensure optimal engagement and retention. Contact Revelo to explore how we can bolster your tech team's journey and help you conquer tech debt.

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